Bentley's research described its success in treating patients addicted to the opium habit with cocaine. Two years later, he reported that he had been successful in treating opium and alcohol users with cocaine. A person with an addiction uses a substance or participates in behavior, the rewarding effects of which provide a compelling incentive to repeat the activity, despite the harmful consequences. Addiction can involve the use of substances such as alcohol, inhalants, opioids, cocaine and nicotine, or behaviors such as gambling.
From 1998 to 2002, Asia, Europe and Australia showed significant problems with opioid addiction, South America was predominantly affected by cocaine addiction, and Africans were more frequently treated for cannabis addiction. This article strives to discuss (i) the cultural history of man's relationship with addictive drugs; and (ii) the historical roots of the science of addiction. Because addiction affects the executive functions of the brain, focused on the prefrontal cortex, people who develop an addiction may not realize that their behavior is causing problems for themselves and others. Addiction is defined as “heavy dependence”, both physiological and emotional, in the Campbell28 psychiatric dictionary28.In 1964, the World Health Organization recommended that the term drug dependence replace addiction and habituation, because these terms did not provide a definition that could be applied to the full range of medications in use.
Addiction is a multifaceted condition that arises from the confluence of many elements, including, of course, exposure to an addictive agent.